Party factions around Hu Jintao and Jiang Zemin are marginalized and those in the driver’s seat are much closer to Xi personally or had a role in shaping or promoting his major concepts and initiatives, from the “Belt and Road” to the “China Dream.”. 117. July 26, 2018. «Two dogs strive for a bone, and the third runs away with it»: the unexpected consequences of the Sino-American trade war. , In order to sustain this new more visible and strong profile in foreign relations, the Chinese leadership undertook a process of centralizing foreign policy-making, giving Xi Jinping and the CCP greater control to «provide strong support for opening new horizons in China’s diplomacy» ( 为开创对外工作新局面提供坚强保障). «On this issue we won’t exert any pressure.  In the second half of September Washington imposed sanctions against a unit of China’s Defense Ministry (China’s Equipment Development Department, EDD) and its government director (Li Shangfu) for purchasing Russian military equipment, in violation of a US sanction law punishing Moscow for meddling in the 2016 US elections. Scott Snyder & See-won Byun, ‘China’s Multiple Roles in the Korean Dra- ma’, Comparative Connections, vol. The Boao Forum for Asia (BFA) annual conference, which took place in Boao, a town in the southern island province of Hainan, from 8 to 10 April, was the first since Xi Jinping was «unanimously re-elected» as Chinese president and the first since China’s commitment to building a «community with a shared future for humanity» (人类命运公同体) was written into the country’s constitution in March. European Union External Action, ‘Joint Statement of the 20th China-EU Summit’, 17 July 2018. 106. Chinese leaders have also been setting increasingly ambitious goals for the Initiative: from economic development to constructing a «community of shared destiny for all mankind». A lot of these concepts remain vague, but it is fair to assume that China sees itself at the center of this new type of international relations. Chinese attitudes toward immigration are growing more diverse, with many remaining neutral or positive despite alarming headlines. It also reveals its weaknesses. Finally, its inclusion in the party constitution confirmed its status as a long-term project, much like Deng Xiaoping’s «reform and opening-up» policy. 28. Share on Facebook. In 2018 the continuation of this process was reflected both in the changes of the foreign policy leadership team as defined at the 19th Party Congress and confirmed during the annual session of the NPC in March 2018, and in the upgrade of the Central Leading Small Group on Foreign Affairs (中央外事工作领导小组), headed by Xi, to Central Foreign Affairs Commission (外事委员会). In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping announced the opening of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in Kazakhstan, confirming China’s long-term strategic, security and economic objectives in Central Asia. Among these last, four are recognized as candidates to membership (Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia), while Bosnia and Herzegovina is officially recognized as potential candidate, Sarajevo having submitted a membership application. The US also added them to the Treasury department’s list of specially designated individuals with whom Americans were barred from doing business. ‘Portugal Officially Joins the Belt and Road Initiative’, Executive Intelligence Review, 5 December 2018. for Us, China International Development Cooperation Agency. 30. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnVYlp2elLo. The best books we reviewed in 2018. , The main reason for the postponement resided in the fact that Beijing remained unmoved by the loud calls from Berlin, Brussels and Paris to tone down its 16+1 activities. ... Our relations with China are extensive. Photo: VCG. ‘Xi Jinping to be first Chinese president to attend Davos World Economic Forum’, South China Morning Post, 11 January 2017; ‘Xi’s Davos visit shows Chinese wisdom, confidence’, China Daily, 20 January 2017; ‘Xi says China stays committed to upholding world peace’, Xinhuanet, 19 January 2017; Huang Zheping, ‘Chinese President Xi Jinping has vowed to lead the «new world order»’, Quartz, 22 February 2017; Charlotte Gao, ‘«A Community of Shared Future»: One Short Phrase for UN, One Big Victory for China?’, The Diplomat, 5 November 2017. Among those countries was Sri Lanka, which in December 2017 transferred the control of Hambantota port, built using Chinese loans, to China Merchants Port Holdings, a state-owned port operator. The Chinese state press agency Xinhua reported that during the encounter Xi referred to Kim as 你, while Kim referred to Xi as 您. China emerged as a major economic, diplomatic, and military power during the critical decade from 2008 to 2018. China-North Korea: the long-awaited renewal of the brotherhood alliance, In 2018 Sino-North Korean relations underwent major changes, the most striking of which related to the North Korean leader’s repeated visits to China. So far it has signed 17 FTAs with 25 countries and regions and is in talks over 12 new or upgraded FTA deals.  That was exactly what the new concept of «great power diplo- macy with Chinese characteristics» (中国特色大国外交) implied.. The Chinese president began talking about a “new type of international relations” in 2013. Zamir Avan, ‘What will India’s role be in the SCO?’, Asia Times, 28 May 2018.  Moreover, in the majority of cases those projects did not respect EU rules and standards for building large-scale infrastructures, from transportation to energy and communications. 107. The aim was to create a more efficient system that could better serve the interests […] Towards the centralization of foreign policy decision-making, Since coming to power Xi Jinping has asserted himself as a strong leader and has impressed a strong guide both domestically and internationally, inaugurating a new era of proactive foreign policy, mainly symbolized by the launch of significant international initiatives.  The «Panmunjom Declaration» made explicit reference to a peace treaty among three or four parties (North Korea, South Korea, the United States, and China). The Forum, which focused on the security situation in Africa and the goal of deepening military cooperation between China and African nations, was attended by military leaders from nearly 50 African countries, clearly reflecting the expanding influence of China’s military on the continent. Laos was no better, considering its several BRI-linked projects which included a US$ 6.7 billion China-Laos railway that represented nearly half the country’s GDP, leading the IMF to warn that it might threaten the country’s ability to service its debts. Xuan Loc Doan, ‘China’s contradictions over the Korean Peninsula Issue’, Asia Times, 16 May 2018. Cheang Ming, ‘China’s mammoth Belt and Road Initiative could increase debt risk for 8 countries’, CNBC, 5 March 2018. 74. The «great power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics» at work, As already seen in Francesca Congiu’s essay in this same issue of Asia Maior, during the first session of the 13th NPC, «Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era» (习近平新时代中国 特色社会主义思想) was introduced into the PRC’s constitution.  Not surprisingly Xi Jinping emphasized more the geostrategic importance of the renewed bilateral ties than the Peninsula’s denuclearization. As analyzed in Francesca Congiu’s article in this same issue of Asia Maior, this concentration of power affected the party.  At the same time Xi expressed China’s willingness «to continue to work with all relevant parties and play an active role in comprehensively advancing the process of peaceful resolution of the peninsula issue through dialogue, and realizing long-term peace and stability in the region». , 6.2. , Kim Jong Un’s three visits in less than three months – the first in Beijing on March 27-28, the second in Dalian on May 8, following the inter-Korean summit of 27 April, and again in Beijing on June 19-20, in the aftermath of the historical Singapore summit between Kim Jong-un and Donald Trump – were of great symbolic significance for Beijing, and Xi Jinping in particular. , Chinese economist Chen Zilei, director of the Research Center for Japanese Economics at the Shanghai University of International Business and Economics, agreed that while the acceleration of the trilateral FTA should not be considered a direct countermeasure against the US – given that Seoul and Tokyo remained close allies of Washington – nonetheless, growing US trade aggression and the protectionist climate promoted by the Trump presidency provided the catalyst to resume talks. According to Xinhua, in the year under review Beijing signed 123 cooperation documents on BRI development with 105 countries (in Asia, Africa, Europe, Latin America, and the South Pacific region) and 26 similar documents with 29 international organizations.. Author: Neil Thomas, University of Chicago. Foreign Policy Issued on ... of record of the home state of our Ambassador to China, and a pivotal state in 2018 … Read More. 118. , The dispute started in January 2018 when the US approved controversial tariffs on imported washing machines and solar panels to «defend American workers, farmers, ranchers and businessmen», in what was seen as Trump’s most significant trade move since his decision to abandon the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and renegotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). 108. 20. In a break from previous speeches, Xi no longer mentioned “nonalignment” with or “noninterference” in other countries. , 4. Policy & Regulations. The same Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been troubled for a long time by its inability to behave coherently due to the presence of a «cacophony of voices», i.e. Europe – as well as other major players in world politics – is well advised to closely monitor China’s new foreign policy setup and the outputs it produces. ‘Is China being marginalized on Korean peninsula?’, The Global Times, 28 May 2018.  Reportedly there was intense debate in Beidaihe during the so-called «summer summit», about Xi visiting Pyongyang for the celebrations. Except for one country’, The Washington Post, 3 September 2018. This was evident by the lively debate unleashed on social media by the intervention of the well-known economist Jeffrey Sachs. At the same time, views on the BRI grew increasingly polarized, not only between countries, but also within them.  For example, Poland – the biggest European 16+1 economy – was represented in Sofia by its deputy prime minister, while its prime minister stayed home to attend a pilgrimage. One of the most interesting consequences of the China-US trade war was the thawing in relations between China and Japan. 54. James Griffiths, ‘Why Kim Jong Un Made a Secret Visit to China’, CNN, 5 April 2018. Kiran Stacey, ‘China signs 99-year lease on Sri Lanka’s Hambantota port’, Financial Times, 11 December 2017. Ryan Pickrell, ‘A Chinese warship reportedly threatened a US Navy destroyer in the South China Sea’, Business Insider, 4 November 2018. 81. Here are five books to understand the year better – and what the future may hold. At a forum held in Beijing on 19 September, representatives from China, Japan and South Korea vowed to accelerate negotiations for a trilateral FTA, begun in 2012, which had seen slow progress due to political and economic differences among the three countries. 20, no. Foreign Policy Issued on ... of record of the home state of our Ambassador to China, and a pivotal state in 2018 … 5. By solving the issues outlined, Feng argues regional stability alongside economic prosperity is possible. The White House, National Security Strategy of the United States of America, December 2017 (https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Fi- nal-12-18-2017-0905-2.pdf), p. 12. The second meeting, on 8 May in Dalian, projected quite strangely the image of an already well-established relationship between the two leaders, despite the fact that it was «newborn», about to prepare for the Kim-Trump meeting. But what, exactly, is the threat? 85. Prosecutors investigated whether Abe, his aide and two executives from his political support group had subsidized the party fees in violation of campaign and election funds laws. 29. After assuming the leadership of the Party in 2012 and of the state in 2013, Xi left no doubt that he saw the shifting global environment and the relative decline of U.S. power as a strategic window for China to increase its global influence. As to the substance of the renewed bilateral ties, Andrei Lankov did not hesitate to express his reluctance since in his view there was no love lost between the two powers: «Let’s not have illusions. This agreement served to enhance bilateral ties strained by historical animosity as well as the dispute concerning ownership of islets in the East China Sea. Chinese nationalism is often talked about as dangerous. 100. Addressing the forum, Kim Jeongil, director general of the FTA Policy Bureau at South Korea’s Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, stated that the world was witnessing growing trade protectionism, which created urgency for completing talks on the China-Japan-South Korea FTA and other multilateral trade pacts. For an overview of China’s growing involvement and the substantial changes of its participation in the UN peacekeeping operations, see ‘China’s Role in UN Peacekeeping’, ISDP, March 2018. In this regard, according to Lankov, Kim Jong Un was turning out to be a «very good diplomat». Further, compliance costs for container shipments will be reduced by at least US$100 by the end of 2018. Yun Sun, ‘The State of Play in Sino-DPRK Relations’. p. 285. Anna Fifield, ‘China and Japan pledge to take their relationship in «new historic direction»’, The Washington Post, 26 October 2018. For an in-depth analysis about the topic, see Linda Jakobson & Dean Knox, New Foreign Policy Actors in China, SIPRI Policy Papers, vol. In so doing the leadership was sending a clear message, namely that the party alone controlled China’s foreign affairs and that it would not tolerate policies or actions that might compromise China’s efforts to become a global power by 2049, the centenary of the PRC. 42. By Taboola. Most-Read Articles. Geopolitical tensions on top of a pandemic has made 2020 a turning point for many countries. Catherine Wong, ‘Will Donald Trump and Xi Jinping rekindle their «great chemistry» at the G20 summit?’, South China Morning Post, 26 November 2018. This bolstered Beijing’s confidence in its relations with North Korea, thus averting its initial fear of exclusion and confirming its centrality in the issue.. Noah Barkin & Aleksander Vasovic, ‘Chinese ‘highway to nowhere’ haunts Montenegro’, Reuters, 16 July 2018. The most surprising, and unexpected one, was the sudden rapprochement between Beijing and Pyongyang, symbolized by the North Korean leader’s frequent visits to China – three in less than three months – which marked the end of the never-ending speculation concerning the state of the brotherhood alliance between the two countries and Beijing’s weak grip on its ally. Although it is not entirely clear whether Xi Jinping was referring to the present Western liberal order created by the US and its allies, or to a new international order anchored to China’s ambitions, culture and desires, his refer- ence to the promotion of a «community of shared future for mankind for the benefit of all people in the world», induces observers to believe he was referring to the latter. 61. Rick Noak, ‘All of Africa is now competing for Chinese money. The work conference in June was the second under Xi’s leadership, while his predecessors Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao had only held one each.  In other words Modi made clear that India could not accept a project that would ignore its core concern on sovereignty and territorial integrity – two main pillars of PRC’s foreign policy – and that would have the potential to greatly strengthen one of his country’s historical enemies.  In particular, of the 68 countries identified as potential borrowers, 23 were found to be already at a «quite high» risk of debt distress. At the same time, the BRI has been enlarging its geographical scope by shifting its focus from the historic Silk Road region to the entire globe. Cheng 2016 offers an overall framework of Chinese foreign policy before examining important bilateral ties and significant challenges, while Qu and Zhong 2018 chronicles China’s diplomatic strategies since the 1980s to cope with complicated and changing international situations. Saibal Dasgupta, ‘India only SCO member to oppose China’s BRI’, The Times of India, 10 June 2018. As in the year 2017, in 2018 relations between China and the US presented many ups and downs, with strong deterioration on the commercial side. For seven years the two allies never met. Jan Weidenfeld, ‘China’s Europe Policy Poses a Challenge to EU Cohesion’, The Diplomat, 16 August 2018. The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. 50. Bartosz Kowalski, ‘What’s Next for the China-CEE 16+1 Platform?’, The Diplomat, 13 July 2018. And he launched the Belt and Road Initiative with great fanfare. On the other hand, it stimulated the strengthening of relations between China and the European Union (EU), as shown by the positive results of 20th EU-China Summit, resumed in its final Joint Statement, even despite the growing tensions around the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and its impact especially in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries.  A symbolic aspect of that success is the fact that after Burkina Faso cut ties with Taiwan, at the end of May,  there remained only one country which failed to recognize the Republic of China (ROC), namely the Kingdom of Eswatini (formerly Swaziland). The growing focus on debt and international standards. Accordingly, Washington launched what the Chinese Ministry of Commerce considered as the «largest trade war in economic history» (经 济史上规模最大的贸易战). 119. China will release a complete list administrative charges at ports by the end of October. The event underscored Chinese president Xi Jinping’s efforts to reduce his country’s exposure to the US market but it indicated a certain amount of pragmatism on the part of the Japanese prime minister too. The tragedy of China’s rapid development over the first 35 years has been wholesale environmental destruction. Lili Kuo, ‘Xi Jinping: president warns other nations not to «dictate» to Chi- na’, The Guardian, 18 December 2018. Us, Write 21 October 2018. China emerged as a major economic, diplomatic, and military power during the critical decade from 2008 to 2018. Throughout 2018, Chinese officials have also repeatedly emphasized the need to treat companies equally, whether domestic or foreign-owned. 36. 121. These episodes were symptomatic of the multiple setbacks and failings that Xi Jinping’s Initiative face. May 08, 2018 05:04 PM. All the commissions were put under the chair of Xi Jinping, while the other members of the Politburo Standing Committee served as his deputy. That said, its general office, which was located inside the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was reportedly often bypassed by other government agencies because it was seen as low-ranking and ineffective, and the group appeared to be incapable of coordinating China’s foreign policy. Zhou Xin & Jun Mai, ‘Xi Jinping, Donald Trump agree to talks at G20 summit next month, source says’, South China Morning Post, 19 October 2018. This book provides a unique perspective to understand Chinese foreign policy during this decade by examining continuities and changes in both internal and external factors that have shaped China's … In the framework of the Initiative, China has defined three potential priorities areas for economic cooperation, i.e. HR & Staffing. At the same time, according to Andrei Lankov, one of the world’s leading Korea experts, and director of the Korea Risk Group, visiting China for the third time in such a short period, Kim might be seeking to take advantage of the trade conflict between China and the US, and trying to deepen their rivalry to ensure they could not join forces against him, as happened with UN sanctions over North Korea’s weapons programme. China’s new foreign policy concept—“a community with a shared future for mankind”— was enshrined in the Party constitution. ‘Japan and China agree on security hotline after a decade of talks’, CNBC, 9 May 2018. 2. A United Airlines flight from San Francisco taxis at Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province in July 2016. Here are 4 things to know’, The Washington Post, 2 July 2018. Send by email. For more information on China’s new imagined international system see Bradley A. Thayer & John M. Friend, ‘The World According to China’, The Diplomat, 3 October 2018. 123. A remarkable example of the growing polarization within countries occurred in the Australian state of Victoria. This was reflected in changes to the foreign policy leadership team at the CCP’s National Congress in November 2017 and the National People’s Congress session in March 2018. According to Chinese foreign minister Wang Yi, Xi’s attendance at the BFA annual conference at that historic moment – 2018 marked the 40th anniversary of «reform and opening-up» and the beginning of the implementation of the decisions taken at the 19th Party Congress – was of great significance in further promoting the «major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era», building «a community with a shared future» for Asia and humanity, and advancing the cause of peace and development. ‘New Foreign Affairs Commission Sets Tone for China’s Diplomacy’, Caixin, 16 May 2018. Not surprisingly the main focus of the debate was how his visit to North Korea might affect China’s difficult relations with the US. , In other words, while for Beijing the meeting was about pacifying its neighbourhood so that it could concentrate on challenges coming from the US, for Tokyo it was an important occasion to recalibrate Sino-Japanese relations, focusing on deepening economic exchanges while putting aside political problems. 17. Modi also specified that his country welcomed new connectivity projects «that are inclusive, sustainable, transparent, and those that respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of nations», adding that «connectivity with SCO and neighbours is a priority for India». Exploring China's new Central Foreign Affairs Commission. These visits marked the end of years of speculation concerning the state of the brotherhood alliance between the two countries, and Beijing’s weak grip on its ally. , Of particular interest for the purpose of this article is the Central Foreign Affairs Commission’s replacement of the former Central Leading Small Group on Foreign Affairs as the central institution in charge of coordinating China’s foreign policy. Katsuji Nakazawa, ‘Xi-Kim honeymoon exposed as a façade’, Asia Nikkei, 13 September 2018. Unsurprisingly, India was the only member state that did not endorse the BRI programme, as revealed in the «Qingdao Declaration», which named all member states, except one, as «reiterating support for China’s BRI» project. China Doesn’t Want to Play by the World’s Rules ... 2018, 9:29 AM (iStockphoto/Foreign Policy illustration) ... More from Foreign Policy. , The importance of the 20th EU-China Summit was manifest in its lengthy final Joint Statement; due mainly to disagreements over granting «market economy» status to China, and other disputes over the South China Sea and trade, the previous two summits had ended without joint statements. 70. 59-92, esp.  But of utmost importance was the deference showed by Kim Jong Un and the words pronounced by the North Korean leader in his toast to the Chinese president, as reported by the North Korean state news agency KCNA: «It is appropriate that my first trip abroad is in China’s capital, and my responsibility to consider continuing North Korea-China relations as valuable as life». Daniel Hurst, ‘From Japan, US VP Denounces «Authoritarianism and Aggression»’, The Diplomat, 16 November 2018.  The meetings between the Chinese and North Korean leaders not only reinvigorated bilateral relations but underscored the necessity of respecting China’s interests and role vis-à-vis the Korean Peninsula. ‘China’s mammoth Belt and Road Initiative could increase debt risk for 8 countries’. 88. The 18th Shanghai Cooperation Organization summit. 122. In overhauling China’s foreign policy, party and state leader Xi Jinping started at the top. 47. 68. Just $5 a month. Related to Trump’s aggressive stance on trade was the Japanese prime minister’s more convincing rapprochement to China, after the timid gestures in 2017. Kim and his wife were «treated lavishly and showered with luxury gifts» by Xi Jinping (including expensive alcohol banned under UN sanctions). 24. American Chamber of Commerce China 2018 American Business in China White Paper: ... can at any time use competition law to promote China’s industrial policy goals by targeting foreign firms to limit competition. Scott Snyder & See-won Byun, ‘China’s Multiple Roles in the Korean Dra- ma’, p. 84. In any case, the support of its main ally was probably seen as essential for the redefinition of the North Korean foreign strategy. The law establishes four broad ... 2018. ‘Xi and Kim’s Marriage of Convenience’, Foreign Policy, 22 June 2018. This is part 1. Saibal Dasgupta, ‘India only SCO member to oppose China’s BRI’, The Times of India, 10 June 2018. In other words, Meng’s arrest was not simply a case about the arrest of a woman, or about a company, but strictly related to the two giants’ technological rivalry, in particular the creation of the new-generation, 5G computer and phone market and Huawei’s role in them. 10 June 2018 ‘ Worried Nato partners wonder if Atlantic alliance can survive Trump ’, has! Party Groups in foreign companies in China iron fist on tariffs s role be in the SCO ’... Loans from Beijing this lunar year features as compared to previous editions China will release complete... 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